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What is the meaning and grammatical structure of bold part? Is there any easier paraphrase?

The vast majority of F5 mirror neurons shows a marked similarity between the action effective when observed and the action effective when executed.

Stamenov, M., & Gallese, V. (Eds.). (2002). Mirror neurons and the evolution of brain and language (Vol. 42). John Benjamins Publishing.‏

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    I think there may be a translation issue. But I am not sure. I'm pretty sure it should be: effective action. Those guys were the editors but one is Italian and the other appears to be Slavic [?].
    – Lambie
    Apr 16, 2018 at 20:49
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    Check this out: mirror neurons + effective action: google.com/…
    – Lambie
    Apr 16, 2018 at 20:51
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    effective action + Gallese, properly translated: old.unipr.it/arpa/mirror/pubs/pdffiles/Gallese/…
    – Lambie
    Apr 16, 2018 at 20:55

2 Answers 2

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Get rid of the word "effective" and it immediately becomes easier to understand.

The phrase "action effective" appears to be technical jargon or a term of art that is presumed to be understood by a reader well-versed in experimental neuroscience. The action effective is either what the monkey does or what it watches another monkey do. For ordinary mortals it's just the action.

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  • It should be effective action. I don't think one can just scrap words like that....
    – Lambie
    Apr 16, 2018 at 20:55
  • @Lambie, I hear you.
    – Aethelbald
    Apr 16, 2018 at 21:03
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It is a little odd, but I think the intention here is a reduced relative clause. That is you should understand this to mean

...the action that was effective when observed and the action that was effective when executed.

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