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"We fellows will also get dressed for dinner."

What kind of function does the word "fellows" bear in the sentence above ?

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The word fellows in your sentence appears to be something that grammarians would refer to as an appositive. And that's exactly what its function is—to be in apposition to the first-person, plural personal pronoun we. To shed more light on what exactly apposition is and how it works, here's a quote from Wikipedia:

Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element serving to identify the other in a different way; the two elements are said to be in apposition. One of the elements is called the appositive, although its identification requires consideration of how the elements are used in a sentence.

The most famous example of apposition that I can think of can be found at the very beginning of the Preamble to the United States Constitution. It goes like this:

We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this constitution for the United States of America.

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