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It seems to add -ment suffix does not generally change the spelling of the base word: "mange" -> "management".

However, I've just noticed that this is not the case for "argue"->"argument". I wonder if there is any other instance similar to this and is there any rule regarding the spelling of suffixes starting with a consonant.

  • Did you check the word origin in a dictionary? – user3169 Apr 19 '18 at 5:34
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This seems to have been a variation of spelling that developed in Middle English.

The word derives from Old French, the Old French Spelling was "arguement", with an "e". That was derived from the Latin "argumentum", (argu- (make clear) + -mentum). Note the Latin doesn't have an "e"

The French "e" came to be inserted as the related verb ending is -ere in Latin and -er in French, (as "arguer") French tends to insert an "e" when forming "-ment" nouns from "-er" verbs. The "e" was then dropped in English, probably to better match the original Latin.

Words like "management", for example, are not based on any Latin original. They were formed in English from "manage"+"-ment", and haven't lost any letters.

The only rule is that there is no rule, but Latin can sometimes justify how a word came to be spelled.

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