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"Obviously the direct answer to the question is supposed to be, "I wouldn't like it at all!" But what's the next step? Suppose you were to say, "I wouldn't like it if someone did that to me. But luckily no one is doing it to me. I’m doing it to someone else, and I don't mind that at all!" This answer misses the point of the question. When you are asked how you would like it if someone did that to you, you are supposed to think about all the feelings you would have if someone stole your umbrella. And that includes more than just "not liking it"—as you wouldn't "like it" if you stubbed your toe on a rock. If someone stole your umbrella you'd resent it."

[Thomas Nagel, What does it all mean?]

What do the words "that" and "as" mean?

Thanks

closed as off-topic by Robusto, kiamlaluno, ColleenV Apr 30 '18 at 17:14

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The author is trying to make a distinction between dislike in the physical sense:

You dislike it when you stub your toe.

and dislike in the emotional sense:

You dislike it when someone steals your umbrella.

He wants to make clear what he means by the verb like in the phrase "not liking it". But his language is not perfectly idiomatic. The idiomatic way to indicate that you're offering an example to explain or clarify your intended meaning with a word or phrase you have just now used, is with the phrase as in.

And that includes more than just "not liking it"—as in you wouldn't "like it" if you stubbed your toe on a rock.

as in {example phrase}.

I took her—as in "I escorted her" not "I fleeced her for all she was worth".

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Wow, the number of 'thats' in the paragraph...

So this use of "that" is as a pronoun, as to something previously mentioned. IN this instance, the word refers to the previous sentence of "things you are supposed to be thinking about".

When you are asked how you would like it if someone did that to you, you are supposed to think about all the feelings you would have if someone stole your umbrella.

i.e. the object here is a collection of feelings, that includes more then 'just not liking it'.

As this is a set of instructions to someone, written in quite a conversational style, the 'as' is explaining that you must include more then just the "not liking it", because the "not liking it" is a general, generic feeling which can be expanded upon. In this instance, its the adverb meaning:

adverb 1. used in comparisons to refer to the extent or degree of something.

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