I have come across this in Crash Course World History. It is at 6 minutes and 55 seconds. Here it goes:

You also had statesmen like Pericles, whose famous funeral oration brags about the golden democracy of Athens with rhetorics that wouldn't sound out of place today. "If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences... If a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition."

I am aware of what the words in the phrase mean itself, but still I have a hard time understanding what it means there.

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    It is a periphrasis for "being a nobody", that is, being born into a family without wealth or influence, and having neither wealth nor influence oneself. Such a person's condition is "obscure". He's got no social "visibility". May 7 '18 at 11:28

In the larger context of the piece, it means that even though a person is not important, if that person is a citizen in good standing the law will apply equally to them as it does to a more important person.

The 'private differences' are that one is in an obscure condition and the other is not. But even though there are differences between them they each are given, or 'afforded', equal justice.

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