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https://macropolo.org/reluctant-stakeholder-chinas-highly-strategic-brand-revisionism-challenging-washington-thinks/

And in that particular aspect, they are joined by some democracies, including, I would argue, even democratic India, that do not view it as the singular organizing principle of international statecraft.

1 Why not "even including, I would argue, democratic India"?

2 Can "that" introduce a non-restrictive attributive clause? I think the introducer should be "which".


Edit: I first thought the that-clause was a non-restrictive attributive clause modifying the noun which "that" immediately followed, i.e. "India". After reviewing, I noticed the verb is "do" not "does", so what the that-clause modifies is not "India" but "some democracies", and the that-clause is restrictive.

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    1) agreed 2) that or which is ok – Sam May 11 '18 at 7:28
  • @Sam I first thought the that-clause was a non-restrictive attributive clause modifying the noun which "that" immediately followed, i.e. "India". After reviewing, I noticed the verb is "do" not "does", so what the that-clause modifies is not "India" but "some democracies", and the that-clause is restrictive. – Zhang Jian May 11 '18 at 8:58
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even is a focus-setter, and something of a concession, and here it would mean "and democratic India too, though that may seem unusual or unlikely to you". One would have to advance an argument to convince people of it. The positioning of even directly before democratic India properly sets the focus of the concession on India, but your alternative would not be ungrammatical.

The concession about India is a parenthetical remark. The that-clause modifies some democracies as you remark in your comment. that and which are used with both restrictive and non-restrictive clauses. The "rule" that says the one or the other must be used is prescriptivist.

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Rewriting the sentence to highlight the structure:

[In some aspect] they are joined by some democracies, [even India], that do not [have some point of view].

I agree the phrase "including, I would argue, even democratic India" is inelegant. Yours is better. However I think the writer's intention was to emphasize India is a democracy, and even they don't [believe in something].

Both that and which can introduce restrictive or non-restrictive clauses. In this case, however, that begins a restrictive clause, since it's the main point of the sentence.

Examples of non-restrictive clauses with that:

The ball that we normally play with is missing and we can't find it.

The cat that usually hangs out on the neighbors' porch is on their roof.

  • 1 I first thought the that-clause was a non-restrictive attributive clause modifying the noun which "that" immediately followed, i.e. "India". After reviewing, I noticed the verb is "do" not "does", so what the that-clause modifies is not "India" but "some democracies", and the that-clause is restrictive. 2 The two examples that you gave are restrictive, in my humble opinion. – Zhang Jian May 11 '18 at 8:58
  • @ZhangJian So you think it would make it non-restrictive if I changed it to: "The cat, which usually hangs out on my neighbors' porch, is on their roof"? – Andrew May 11 '18 at 14:36
  • Yes, according to what I have learnt. – Zhang Jian May 14 '18 at 2:36

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