This is a passage from an article on the use of store mannequins to collect data on shoppers behaviours:

Others say profiling customers raises legal and ethical issues. U.S. and European Union regulations permit the use of cameras for security purposes, although retailers need to put up signs in their stores warning customers they may be filmed. Watching people solely for commercial gain may break the rules and could be viewed as gathering personal data without consent, says Christopher Mesnooh, a partner at law firm Field Fisher Waterhouse in Paris.

What's the meaning of raise in the first sentence? From looking it up on MWLD, there are two definitions that seems to fit the context; however, I'm unsure which is more appropriate, they are:

5b : to cause people to think about or be aware of (something)
▪ The book raises many questions about our biological origins. ▪ The discovery raises the possibility of a cure for the disease. [=the discovery makes it possible that a cure for the disease will be found]

6 : to cause (something) to happen or exist : to produce (something)
The news raised hopes for peace. ▪ The news raised fears of war. ▪ Her comment raised a few smiles/laughs. ▪ He was so tired he could barely raise a smile. [=he could barely smile] ▪ The laws were passed without raising much opposition. ▪ A passerby saw the intruders and raised [=sounded] the alarm. ▪ The audience raised a cheer [=the audience cheered] at the end of the speech. ▪ Some people are raising a ruckus/fuss/stink [=are complaining or objecting very angrily] about the proposed tax.

1 Answer 1


I would say it is "to cause (something) to happen or exist : to produce (something)" in this case.

Others say profiling customers raises legal and ethical issues.

Means that, according to some people (others), profiling (customers) causes legal and ethical issues to come into existence.

The mentioned issues do not exist yet, but they will exist if profiling of customers happens (at least according to those "others").

  • 1
    I would say the first definition (5b) is closer. Such an issue doesn't exist (as a controversy) unless people are thinking about/discussing it, and taking sides. I don't see it as actually creating the issues where there was nothing before, but it's a small difference.
    – Phil Perry
    Apr 11, 2014 at 13:54

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