It's a good question that points up to some not so well‐known issues of learning grammar. The question poised by the OP is that h/she must choose a right grammatically answer specifying the precise grammatical manner of the sentence about Charles Dickens from the available three options.
After some short personal reviewing the experienced substantive discussion having been held here, we might be able to come to a seemingly surprising conclusion that there is no definite generai opinion on a probable answer.
I would like to draw attention to a specific problem of this and similar discussions, which could help individuals studying English to navigate in the learning tasks having some similar content.
It is a socialy respectable fact that Charles John Huffam Dickens ( 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He is regarded by many as the greatest British novelist of the Victorian era.
That is why lots of opinions about his person and literary texts have spread round within the British culture and cultures worlwide. To say this in the other way, there have been created many contexts which contain the opinions concerning him and his works. There is such an assertion of the English language linguistics that the syntax and lexical meaning often depends on the context in which they are used in. The assertion holds in the case.
To assess how a possible syntax should be looked like, we ought to have come to a reasonable opinion on the kind of a context used for the options in the task firstly.
In case of commentaries on the manner of the text, we should use the Present Indefinite Passive Great Expectations is written in the English language. Pls, check it out on the Google Ngram Viewer with the verb phrase is written.
In case of commentaries on the result of the writer's literary work we should use the Present Perfect Passive It is a great novel because Great Expectations has been written by Charles Dickens, or Great Expectations has been written by Charles Dickens.
In case of commentaries on the time-period of the writer's works, or the results of his personal work we should use the Past Indefinite Passive It was the Victorian era in the UK when Great Expectations was written by Charles Dickens.
So, the most probable answer to the task is Great Expectations has been written with the meaning Great Expectations is the result of Charles Dickens' work.
You can verify it with
A debate arose over whether the statements of people who lived in the past is possible in the sentences with the Present Perfect tense. Honestly, the question is somewhat unexpected. Of course, this is possible, and it's the regular English. What can be confirmed with numerous examples from the modern literature, for example here is the two of many more:
- As George Bernard Shaw has said, common sense alone should prevent our thinking...
- George Bernard Shaw has said it splendidly that, “I want to be thoroughly used up when I die, for the harder I work, the more I live.
The second question raised in the dispute was no less surprising. Is a grammatical construction of the type because it has been written possible in the subordinate clause of the reason? The answer is the same, of course, it is possible in the ordinary English. The proof is simpler than in the first case: