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This is my question sentence.

If a company owns a factory that introduces harmful chemicals into rivers or lakes, it faces an immediate fine of up to one million dollars.

Here, can I just delete of and write it faces an immediate fine up to one million dollars?

If not, why preposition of is necessary in this sentence?

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...it faces an immediate fine of up to one million dollars.
...it faces an immediate fine of as much as one million dollars.
...it faces an immediate fine, up to one million dollars.
...it faces an immediate fine -- up to one million dollars.

There is a need for something linking the noun "fine" to the "[up to] one million dollars". Without that it it two nouns running side-by-side. It is best to have a preposition, prepositional phrase, or some punctuation there. That being said, I had never heard of an implied preposition before searching this topic online, and perhaps omitting the "of" here would be acceptable, depending on your context and style of writing (judging by your example which sounds like written word vs. spoken/scholarly vs. colloquial).

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