I'm looking for a word (or, if no single word exists, a short expression) that includes anything that is not your base salary (e.g. overtime, bonuses, sale commisions). If possible, I would like it to not require any additional context (so "Hey, I got my x today!" could be understood, even if it sounded awkward).
You could simply say extra pay (or, even more colloquially, extra money).
This assumes that it's paid to you by an employer, it's not part of your base salary, and it doesn't matter in what way the money gets to you.
I think you are looking for the expression cash in hand:
If someone is paid cash in hand, they are paid in notes and coins so there is no written record of the payment.