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Is there a specific word for a dialogue between two characters in a play or novel, where that dialogue only consists of questions and answers?

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    The word dialogue already means spoken conversation. Do you mean something specific like question-answer-question-answer? Perhaps interrogation or interrogative dialogue? – Jason Bassford Supports Monica Jul 10 '18 at 0:25
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There is no non-technical word for this. But the situation can be simply described

A dialogue where one person asks and the other answers.

A particular scene may describe various types of question-answer dialogues [note how, having established context the phrase "question-answer dialogue" is now clear] for example an "interview" or a "Socratic dialogue". You may find that one of these more precise terms suits your needs better.

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Stichomythia is the technical term for an extended dramatic passage in which two characters speak alternating lines of verse. There's also hemistichomythia, in which the characters alternate half-lines and distichomythia, in which they alternate couplets.

The device was fairly common in classical Greek tragedy, and Renaissance playwrights often adopted it. The term is often extended to rapid-fire alternation in prose, such as Abbot & Costello's famous Who's on first routine:

Abbott: Strange as it may seem, they give ball players nowadays very peculiar names.
Costello: Funny names?
Abbott: Nicknames, nicknames. Now, on the St. Louis team we have Who's on first, What's on second, I Don't Know is on third—
Costello: That's what I want to find out. I want you to tell me the names of the fellows on the St. Louis team.
Abbott: I'm telling you. Who's on first, What's on second, I Don't Know is on third--
Costello: You know the fellows' names?
Abbott: Yes.
Costello: Well, then who's playing first?
Abbott: Yes.
Costello: I mean the fellow's name on first base.
Abbott: Who.
Costello: The fellow playin' first base.
Abbott: Who.
Costello: The guy on first base.
Abbott: Who is on first.
Costello: Well, what are you askin' me for?
Abbott: I'm not asking you—I'm telling you. Who is on first.
Costello: I'm asking you—who's on first?
Abbott: That's the man's name.
Costello: That's who's name?
Abbott: Yes.

The device is not restricted to Q&A situations, but of course it's admirably suited to them.

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