It is from Crash Course World History. It is at around 5 minute and 33 second. Here is the context:
So this idea that the Islamic empire wasn't always a califate for much of its history, it was just an empire is very important. Because it gets to how not-different ways of organizing people are when it comes like us and them.
I cannot really get what the host mean by the phrasal verb because what this and other dictionaries give, doesn't seem to fit.