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Sentence:
Have you met him?

Structure:
to have verb + subject + extension + interrogation

Then, how will these be structured?

Could you please tell me where the bookstore is?

The train leaves at 9 am, does not it?

It is raining now, is not it?

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Your example structure doesn't seem sensible.  If nothing else, I have no idea what you mean by "extension". 

 

Have you met him? 

have: finite auxiliary verb, predicator
you: second-person pronoun, subject of "have"
met: participial verb, forms the argument of "have", marks the perfect aspect
him: third-person singular masculine pronoun, direct object of "met"

The interrogative mode is marked both by subject/auxiliary inversion and by the question mark end punctuation.  The verb construction is "have met", which employs the present tense, perfect aspect, active voice and indicative mode.  There is only one clause in the sentence.  The sentence is a neutral yes/no question. 

 

Could you please tell me where the bookstore is?

could: finite auxiliary verb, predicator
you: second-person pronoun, subject of "could"
please: adverb, modifies "tell"
tell: bare infinitive verb, forms the argument of "could"
me: first-person singular objective pronoun, indirect object of "tell"
where: subordinating adverb, forms the direct object of "tell", modifies "is"
the: definite article, modifies "bookstore"
bookstore: common singular noun, subject of "is"
is: finite auxiliary verb, predicator

There are two clauses in this sentence.  The subordinate clause "where the bookstore is" serves as the direct object of the verb construction "could tell".  The "is" verb construction is in the present tense, indefinite aspect and indicative mode.  As a copular verb, it has no voice.  The "could" of "could tell" uses the past-tense form to indicate the subjunctive mode rather than the past tense.  The "could tell" construction can be interpreted as using the present tense, indefinite aspect and active voice.  Other interpretations also exist, especially in frameworks that consider the subjunctive mode to be an obsolete concept. 

The entire sentence represents an open-ended question or perhaps a polite and deferential command, despite the fact that the grammar alone suggests nothing more than a neutral yes/no question. 

 

The train leaves at 9 a.m, doesn't it?

the: definite article, modifies "train"
train: common singular noun, subject of "leaves"
leaves: finite verb, predicator
at: preposition, forms a modifier of "leaves"
9: common singular noun (or, possibly, substantive adjective)
a.m.: abbreviated Latin prepositional phrase meaning before mid-day, modifying "9"
doesn't: contraction of "does not", in which "does" is a finite auxiliary predicator and "not" is an adverb modifying "does"
it: third-person singular neuter pronoun, subject of "doesn't"

The entire sentence represents a biased yes/no question that expects a positive answer.  The first clause is structured as a declarative statement.  The second clause acts as a contrasting follow-up interrogative.  The auxiliary "doesn't" in the tag is anaphoric, taking the "leaves at 9 a.m." in the first clause as its antecedent.

  • @ Gary Botnovcan Thanks for your Honorable Help! :) – wh112 Jul 26 '18 at 15:54
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Sentences two and three do not follow the structure that you have stated. Their structure is known as question tag and it has its specific rules.

A question tag (also known as tail question) is a grammatical structure in which a declarative or an imperative statement is turned into interrogative fragment (the "tag"). For example, in the sentence "You're John, aren't you?", the statement "You're John" is turned into a question by the tag "aren't you".

The English tag question is made up of an auxiliary verb and a pronoun. The auxiliary must agree with the tense, aspect and modality of the verb in the preceding sentence.

Your second sentence can be lightly rephrased as

The train leaves at 9 am, doesn't it?

where you can see the elements described in the cited text

Declarative: The train leaves at 9 am.
Interrogative: doesn't it?

Auxiliary verb: to do - does
Pronoun: it (the train)

More info about question tag here


On the other hand your example

Have you met him?

corresponds to the interrogative form of the present perfect simple. It got nothing to do with a question tag.


And last but not least,

Could you please tell me where the bookstore is?

is an indirect polite way of asking just: where is the bookstore?

It's structure is more complex than aux verb + subject + verb.

  • Okay, Actually I'm trying to build something like AI where the intelligence will receive my feedback, recognize it and serve the appropriate reply on return . . . Is it Possible to help me with that in any way . ? like any suggestion or anything like that . . . :/ :) any positive feedback will be gladly appreciated! :) – wh112 Jul 26 '18 at 11:13
  • @wh112 Sorry, I think that an AI algorithm is far beyond the scope of this site. You should try in another stack exchange site. This one is about humans learning the English language not about humans programming machines to give the "right" answer. – RubioRic Jul 26 '18 at 12:00
  • well, alright! :) I am at stackoverflow on this topic but just asked you if you have something to give me like a concept or similar. It's Okay! :) – wh112 Jul 26 '18 at 14:16

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