Look at this example below

You kept me waiting.

Why 'waiting' is an example of a present participle? I have found a very decent explanation of participles and how to determine them here. But I am unable to find in which example it fits according to the use given in the reference. If you have any other way of explaining other than the reference please do so.

  • What is it about waiting in particular that is causing confusion? That reference gives clear examples of the different uses, and waiting follows in the same structure as all of the other examples. I take it that you don't have a problem with how the other words are distinguished? Do you think, for instance, that waiting functions differently than walking? – Jason Bassford Aug 13 '18 at 16:02
  • I can't seem to place in which example it fits according to the use given in that reference. If you have any other way of explaining other than the reference please do so. – Ritwik Bhattacharyya Aug 13 '18 at 16:21
  • The second example the source gives for a present participle is She was waiting. Which is exactly the same form as He was painting. (As opposed to gerunds Walking is good for you. or, for instance, Waiting takes patience.) – Jason Bassford Aug 13 '18 at 16:25
  • correct me if I am wrong but the reference clearly states it is an example of participles where PRESENT PARTICIPLES AS PART OF THE CONTINUOUS FORM OF A VERB. like She was(aux verb) waiting(main verb). But still a part of the main verb. This is not the case here. – Ritwik Bhattacharyya Aug 13 '18 at 16:30

Keep is causative there.

A wooden paraphrase: You caused me to be waiting.


He punched his opponent on the chin and sent him reeling.

With a quick twist of his wrist he set the jack spinning.

The comedian had the audience laughing.

  • Okay two questions How do you understand which verbs are causative, I thought only get, help, let, have,make are used as causative verbs only. Secondly, How do you justify the yes of participle after causative. I mean is there any rule like after causative we always use participle. like that. – Ritwik Bhattacharyya Aug 13 '18 at 16:28
  • There's no need to "justify" a use. The language is what it is. – Tᴚoɯɐuo Aug 13 '18 at 17:00
  • Verbs that function as causal verbs act upon the direct object and change its state, and the state is expressed as a verb, either the bare infinitive or the participle. They made him talk. They had him answering phones. – Tᴚoɯɐuo Aug 13 '18 at 17:02
  • Ok so for 'causative' both the use of bare infinitive and participle gives same sense, right? What about the verb 'get' causative verb? Will take 'to' instead of bare infinitive ? – Ritwik Bhattacharyya Aug 15 '18 at 6:53
  • @Ritwik Bhattacharyya They can get you to talk. They can get you elected. It may get you killed. Assembling boxed furniture pieces can get you cussing and swearing. – Tᴚoɯɐuo Aug 15 '18 at 11:41

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