They cannot generally (in normal context) be used interchangeably.
Used with in, you are advancing something from one position to another position within a specific unit:
I am studying Algebra. I used to be the lowest-ranked student in my class, but I have advanced in status and now am the highest-ranked student.
(The speaker stays within the unit of Algebra)
Used with to, you are advancing from one specific unit to another:
I was studying Algebra, but have passed the final test and now will advance to a higher level class, Calculus.
(The speaker changes to a new Maths unit)
In your example, "you" are in a basic stage of life (a unit) and are advancing to another stage (another unit), not advancing within the basic stage.