With technology advancing rapidly since the advent of the computer, today's video games are preferable to those that were produced two decades ago.

What is the meaning of “with + noun + participle” phrase? I have seen these sometimes and interpreted these as “when ~” because I have seen in texts that these phrases mean circumstances. In the above sentence, however, I don’t understand with-phrase since it is followed by since-phrase. So my question is the meaning of “with + noun + participle” phrase, especially in the sentence above.

  • 1
    The "with" PP is an adjunct, where "with" has a similar meaning to "due to", or "because of". The PP functions as an adjunct of reason.
    – BillJ
    Commented Aug 17, 2018 at 18:13

1 Answer 1


"With technology advancing rapidly" is a prepositional phrase, describing the context and cause of the main clause of the sentence. (See definition 7.2 and 7.3 here: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/us/with).

"Since the advent of the computer" is also a prepositional phrase, describing the rapid advance of technology, specifically the start point of the rapid advancement.

This style of leading "with" prepositional phrase is often used to mean "because of ~"; however, I would interpret it more generally as "In the context of noun performing the present participle, the main clause of the sentence occurs". This context could be the cause of main clause, as in your example, or the circumstances in which the main clause occurred, or how the main clause occurred.

  • How about this sentence, "She sat on the chair, with her legs crossed."? Does it also mean the same as "because of her legs crossed."?
    – Orient
    Commented Aug 18, 2018 at 2:55
  • 1
    @Orient: I would say no, but would instead refer you to definition 5 contained in the above link "Indicating the manner or attitude of the person doing something". In your case "with her legs crossed" indicates the manner in which "she sat on the chair".
    – sharur
    Commented Sep 20, 2018 at 18:05

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