Sometimes after listening to a popular song you can't stop repeating it in your head. Is there any term for this in English? You can't say the same in Russian using one word.
You can use "Earworm" which means:
a song or melody that keeps repeating in one's mind
You could say the song is "stuck in your head". I haven't found a dictionary listing the phrase, but here's a Time article on the subject, with the title "Why Do Songs Get Stuck In Your Head?"
For example usage, to express "after listening to a popular song you can't stop repeating it in your head" I would say:
I heard [popular song] on the radio, and now it's stuck in my head.
"Earworm" is a very related term. Essentially, if a song gets stuck in peoples' heads frequently then it can be called an earworm. On the other hand, the phrase "stuck in your head" is how you talk about a specific time when it happened, such as "it's stuck in my head right now" or "it was stuck in my head when I left yesterday".
It also has other suggestions: sticky music, head music and the English Wikipedia on loanwords calls it catchy tune.
Based on the comments by two native speakers and their up votes - those suggestions are even less used. Catchy tune is better used for an appealing and memorable tune rather than a song which is stuck in your head at the moment.
Another term I've hear used is "song virus". Surprisingly to me, I couldn't find this listed anywhere other than Urban Dictionary, but it's definitely a usage I've heard as an American native speaker.
You can use hook:
Catchy part of a song that draws in the listener, not necessarily the chorus.
The word I've heard is "earbug".
Here's the example there:
Person 1: Why are you acting so weird?
Person 2: Sorry, I have an earbug. I can't get this stupid Metallica song out of my head.