"However, it considerably slipped and is estimated to dip to 83% and 78% in 1981 and 2021, respectively."

is the above sentence grammatical true? I think the word "and" here connect two phrases "it considerably slipped" and "it is estimated to dip", but the second "it" is omitted.

On the other hand, my friend said it may be wrong since the word "and" here may be understood as a connecting word between a passive and active, and they are not parallel.

  • What does "fr" mean?
    – BillJ
    Aug 20, 2018 at 8:51
  • Editted. Not inportant though
    – T C
    Aug 20, 2018 at 8:52
  • What is grammatical true? I don't see what truth has to do with anything.
    – tchrist
    Aug 20, 2018 at 9:04
  • I mean if the given sentence a grammatically true one. I use "and" to connect 2 phrases, but could it be misunderstood?
    – T C
    Aug 20, 2018 at 9:06
  • 2
    Call it grammatical or grammatically correct. Truth has to do with correspondence with reality.
    – Lawrence
    Aug 20, 2018 at 9:26

2 Answers 2


I think it is OK with tenses here (1 subject + sequentially 2 verb tenses), since the timing of the action corresponds to the logic of events. It is clear that something happened to it some time ago (it changed - Past Simple) and now (the sense is clear even with this word omitted) is (Present Simple) in some other condition (is estimated to be smth. - passive doesn't change things sufficiently). Here's an article with detailed explanations and similar examples, like this one:

I have heard that Mona left Manchester this morning, and has already arrived in London, where she will be for the next three weeks.



As far as grammar is concerned, it is perfectly fine syntax to have 'and' connect any two full sentences and leave out repeated parts. So your given sentence is fine.

But style is different. To make things flow smoothly you may want to connect things in a more parallel way, just out of artistic feel. One might consider the sentence clunky but I think it is OK. One can be very intentional and use ambiguity of terms to make even more parallelism, and this is called syllepsis or zeugma.

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