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I learned about i wish i had vII -> something i regret that i didn't do something in the past and i have now effects of that
And about i wish i had wihout vII -> I regreat that i have to do something now.

But i have some exercise about I wish + Past simple or I wish + would. my exercise

and i don't have any idea what they mean and what difference they have. Somebody could explain me, how this 4 forms differ ?

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Wishes (or regrets) about the past use Past Perfect:

I wish I had asked her out.

That's the easy part. For the other tenses, the general rule is to use Simple Past for wishes about the present:

I wish you were here.

and "would" for wishes about the future:

I wish you would come tomorrow.

However, the line between the two latter cases can be a bit blurry without an explicit time indicator, as most wishes for something in the future can also be applicable to the present without much of a change in meaning:

I wish it would stop raining (sometime soon) / I wish it stopped raining (now)

Additionally, when our "wish" is a request towards another person, using "would" makes it more polite:

I wish you stopped correcting me. (more firm) / I wish you would stop correcting me (more polite)

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