Is this sentence grammatically correct?
Being an intelligent girl she tried to argue with him
or should it be:
Been an intelligent girl she tried to argue with him
and what is the difference?
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A sentence of the form
VERB participle (+ complements), SUBJECT + PREDICATE.
implies an underlying clause of the form
Because SUBJECT BE VERB participle (+ complements), SUBJECT + PREDICATE.
The construction BE VERB past participle is passive. Intransitive verbs like BE cannot be cast into the passive voice, and Been an intelligent girl, representing Because she was been an intelligent girl is impossible. Only the present participle can be used here.
If however, what you mean is Because she had been something-or-other, the auxiliary HAVE is allowed to be cast as a present participle; the been here is the complement of HAVE, beyond the scope of the rule. That doesn’t really fit this particular context, but this works:
Having been a debater in high school, she tried to argue with him.