Your examples above are all homonyms. Homonyms are words that are spelled and pronounced the same but have different meanings.
Taking "top" as a single example; as a noun it can be used to describe an item of clothing (in UK English anyway) and obviously that is something entirely different to a "spinning top". So what you have are two different things that are spelled and pronounced the same. The fact they have the same root meaning is certainly relevant, but doesn't make them the same.
One comment suggested that they are "homophones", but that isn't completely accurate if they are spelled the same. True, a homonym is also by definition a homophone, but two words can be considered homophones if they simply sound the same (for example sea and see). If they are spelled and sound the same they are homonyms.
- Homophone - words that sound the same but have different meanings. (eg "sea" and "see")
- Homograph - words that are spelled the same but have different meanings. (eg "wind" as in windmill, and "wind" as in the long and winding road)
- Homonym - words that are spelled and sound the same but have different meanings. (eg "fly" as in insect, or to travel by air)
The reason I feel this is the most appropriate answer is because "homonym" accurately describes the words above regardless of whether or not they are different word classes (what you call "parts of speech", eg nouns, adjectives, etc).
Also two words can be described as homonyms whether or not the words have the same derivation. For example, "mine" as a noun for an underground excavation is of French or possibly Celtic origin. The adjective "mine" meaning to dig such an excavation is clearly derived from it. However, "mine" as a possessive pronoun is of Germanic origin, so it cannot be referred to as a derivation. However, all three are homonyms.