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I would like to know if it's OK to add a descriptive phrase between whose and the thing owned, i.e, car:

Whose amazingly painted white house is this?

Whose red car is this?

Do these sound OK? If yes, do they sound better than the following?

Whose house is this amazingly painted white one?

Whose car is this red one?

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    The only stylistic comment is that you don't normally use a hyphen with an adverb that ends in ly, so this would typically be amazingly painted white house. But the sentence itself sound fine. (Personally, I would prefer both sentences to the alternatives.) – Jason Bassford Sep 8 '18 at 21:58
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    Thanks @Jason. I didn't know that. I've updated the post with your suggested correction. – Sara Sep 8 '18 at 22:06
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All four of your sentences are correct.

Which ones are better is an opinion. Your first ones draw attention to the characteristics whereas your second sentences draw attention first to the object.

They might usually be expressed as

Who owns this amazingly painted white house?
Who owns the red car?

Drawing attention to the purpose of the question, ownership.

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Native speakers will often ask things like:

Whose big dog is that?

The dog's size is important to the speaker for some reason that goes beyond identifying which dog the speaker is referring to.

So unless the car's redness is significant, it would be a little odd to ask

Whose red car is this?

Whose car is this red one? or Whose is the red car? are simpler. It is simply a way of referring to a particular car, which happens to be red, and asking who it belongs to.

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All of those sentences are fine. (And both adjectives and adjectival phrases can come after possessive pronouns and before nouns.)

Having said that, I think the first versions would be used more commonly used in conversation than the second versions.

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