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[A] Which is correct?

  1. Tower A is twice the height of tower B.
  2. Tower A has twice the height of tower B.

Is the phrase "the height of" used as a noun (height) or as an adjective (high)?

[B] Which is correct?

  1. Russia is twice the amount of military personnel of Ukraine.
  2. Russia has twice the amount of military personnel of Ukraine.

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It's used as an adjective, so A is 1 . Twice the height is a measurement of an intrinsic property of the tower. In your second example, however, we use 'has' because troops are possessed by Russia, not an intrinsic quality of it. So B is 2. Here's an example to better detail the difference:

A. My height is equal to two yardsticks.

B. I have two yardsticks.

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