How to say table was the thing I kicked into using stub?
Is it one of these?
A. I stubbed my toe by the table?
B. I stubbed my toe onto the table?
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by is used to show the person or thing that does something. You can't really use by with a table in this sentence, because it's you that's doing something (kicking the table). You could use by about a table if, for example, it fell on you:
He was killed by a table that fell from the roof garden of the hotel.
onto is used to show movement into or on a particular place. for example:
He climbed onto the stage
One of the meanings of on is to show what causes pain or injury as a result of being touched, for example
I hit my head on the shelf as I was standing up
on is therefore the correct preposition to use in your sentence.
I stubbed my toe against the step.
I stubbed my toes against a table leg.
As commented by other users, this expression is regional: although it would be understood, it wouldn't sound natural in the American Midwest, nor would it in the UK. But in some parts of America it would.
In light of this, I would recommend to use
I stubbed my toe on the table
which seems to be accepted everywhere.