1

I have a problem that is hard to solve/ code that is not working anymore.

vs.

I have a hard-to-solve problem/ not-working-anymore code. (hard-to-solve/ not-working-anymore are not really words in the dictionary)

There are so many cases we use an attributive clause to modify a noun, but it's just too short that I feel it's kind of trouble to add the formal subject and the be verb.

Do native-speakers feel the same?

In Mandarin we use the second way of expressing, But how do English-speaking people express such things?

Is there a third way to express this?

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In your examples

I have a hard-to-solve problem.

is perfectly good and many native speakers use it.

However,

not-working-anymore code

is not used, one would simply say

My code is not working anymore.
My code stopped working.
My code is having problems.

If you did use your expression, most people might think you were making a joke

My not-working-anymore code has gone on vacation.

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