From the Collins Dictionary's definition of take
If a person, vehicle, or path takes someone somewhere, they transport or lead them there.
If a person, vehicle, or path takes someone to somewhere, they transport or lead them there.
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'Somewhere' and 'someplace' are pronouns that are typically used adverbially, where the preposition can be assumed (causing many to simply call them adverbs).
"He went [to] somewhere." (adverb)
"He is [at] somewhere." (adverb)
"He came from somewhere." ('somewhere' is a pronoun, and 'from somewhere' is an adverbial phrase)
This is a good observation. Substitute a person or thing for someone and a location for somewhere, and the preposition would certainly be expected:
A ferry takes workers to and from the island.
The Alaska Highway takes you toward Beaver Creek.
She took the children into their house.
This is not, however, something special about take; rather, the trick is that somewhere is not used an indefinite pronoun here. Its most common usage is adverbial (e.g. MMD, Collins, MW), indicating moving to or being in or at some unspecified or unknown location. Try replacing somewhere with another adverb of place to make better sense of it:
A ferry takes workers offshore.
The Alaska Highway takes you eastward.
She took the children home.
Anywhere, elsewhere, everywhere, nowhere, and someplace (and anyplace and everyplace, which are less common and mostly found in North American English) are also primarily adverbs, although they can be used as pronouns.
Some prepositions can also act as adverbs of place, thus how you would classify it would depend on whether or not there is an object:
My boss is taking me around tomorrow.
My boss is taking me around the factory tomorrow.