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Can I say the red circle is "on the coast" or this is reserved just for the case of the green one? What about saying the red circle is "off the coast"? But in case is it correct, how can I distinguish its position from the position of the blue circle?

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The red circle is off the coast of Chile. The green circle is on the coast of Chile. The blue circle is still close enough that we would also say it's off the coast of Chile.

Off the coast is not meant to be an exact description of location. If you want to accurately distinguish the red circle from the blue circle, you would have to add more information, such as:

The blue circle is about 250 km northwest of the red circle, off the coast of Chile.

or

The blue circle is northwest of the red circle, about 350 km off the coast of Chile.

Along the coast, as user3169 suggests, is fine, but to me it suggests either movement up or down the coastline, or something fairly long that runs parallel to the coastline. I would not use it for the red circle, since that seems more of a fixed location.

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    One way we could more generally contrast the location of the two circles is to say something like: The red circle is near the coast of Chile; the blue circle is far off the coast of Chile. However, these terms are relative, and are subject to interpretation. "Far off the coast" for a swimmer is not nearly as great a distance is “far off the coast” for a commercial fishing vessel.
    – J.R.
    Commented Sep 27, 2018 at 8:32

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