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it’s worth considering those associations when breaking the tie among several equally liked names

I know the meanings of the words. But I don't understand who "breaking the tie ..."

Do those associations break the tie? (assotiations & breaking?)

And as a result I don't undrestand the meaning of the last sentence.

The fuller text is:

Names Influence Life Outcomes Every name is associated with demographic baggage: information about the bearer’s age, gender, ethnicity, and other basic personal features.[...] One reason why personal names are so important, then, is that they allow people to categorize us almost automatically [...]

Names, then, have the capacity to shape our outcomes because they’re tied to important concepts that have real meaning. Sometimes they’re associated with racial groups or socioeconomic status, sometimes with charity appeals or being called on last at school. Some of those associations are positive and others are negative, and when you’re a parent faced with a smorgasbord of choices, perhaps it’s worth considering those associations when breaking the tie among several equally liked names.

Drunk Tunk Pink By Adam Alter

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The who is you:

... when you’re a parent faced with a smorgasbord of choices, perhaps it’s worth considering those associations when [you're] breaking the tie among several equally liked names.

He's talking about association between names. For a very basic, minimal example, consider the two names Joe and Bernard. The associations are that Joe is an ordinary name, while Bernard sounds a little more impressive. Of course, there's no rule. You have to be familiar with the name and culture to know which names are plain and which aren't.

Now, as a parent, you might be considering these two names and weigh them equally. In other words, there is a tie between Joe and Bernard. Then, yes, the associations break the tie. The author is suggesting that you use the associations in order to choose a name--in order to "break the tie."

Of course, there are more complicated associations, as suggested by the author.

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Tie means :

A result in a game or other competitive situation in which two or more competitors or teams have the same score or ranking; a draw.

When you want to name your child, you will have copious options. The writer liken this choosing process to a competition and use the word tie in this context figuratively as if all the potential names are all equal at the first stage and there is a tie among them. The name you will choose will break the tie and will be winner.

The writer suggests that you take into consideration all the associations a name have when you choose it.

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  • A minor point: I don’t think the writer is saying that “all potential names are equal at the first stage.” I think the implication is that the parents probably will narrow down the copious options to a few well-liked choices. Once that is accomplished, they would use the guidance provided to break the tie between those two or three names. – J.R. Sep 27 '18 at 8:57
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Please refer to tiebreaker.

It is a means of deciding the best, when all seem to be equal.

So in this context, although the sentence is clumsy, your bolded text containing the phrase breaking the tie is recommending a way to make the decision of what name should be given — that is, considering what each name alludes to.

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