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A long serving member of the Army, he recieved many decorations including The George Cross, the most fitting conclusion to his distinguished career.

People often pass away because they've simply 'given up', doctor warns as he gives five tell-tale signs to look out for.

My mom always had a love for Stevie Nicks, grew up listening to this for obvious reasons.

What do we call these adjacent phrases in the first two examples and why do they differ from the last example which is missing a coordinating conjunction grammatically?

Why use these instead of connecting them with conjunctions? Because you can add 'which was' in the first example, and start a new sentence with 'A doctor.' They feel like they're unconnected?

The first two don't 'require' coordinating conjunctions, yet appear like the same sort of phrases as the third example which has just removed 'and'.

By just removing the conjunction are we placing it in the same catergory as the first two examples ?

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    I don't think these are all examples of the same thing. The first sentence is a simple adjectival phrase modifying "The George Cross". The second looks like a mistake, as everything before the first comma should be in quotes. Either that or it is an example of a "headline" in which many things like conjunctions are routinely left out. The third is simply not grammatical. – Andrew Sep 28 '18 at 15:45
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I'm sorry but it seems you are mistaken. There is no structural connection (identifiable grammatical similarity) between 1) and 2)

The first two have nothing to do with each other.** fitting** is an adjective and in 1), the entire the phrase is an apposition to "The George Cross". It is another way of stating what The George Cross is.

2) is newspaper headline style. Though the first part of the sentence is quite long, it is nevertheless the kind of thing one might see in a press release. This can be called newspaper headline style as news writing often uses this form.

XXX [statement] followed by warns, advises, insists, etc. in the simple present.

Global warming will lead to increased coastal flooding, climatologists warn public.

That type of sentence is typical of news releases, and would then be followed by an article using normal sentence structure: Climatologists meeting in [city] have once again [etc.]

3) The sentence is missing an and conjunction for it to make sense.

3) is just missing an "and".

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