a is correct. The verb is at past tense simple -
went- describing an action that happened in the past, and the time is specified
in the morning.
c is correct. The 1st verb is at past perfect simple -
had gone - describing an action that happened before another past action -
I would say
b is not correct since both actions are at past tense simple, meaning they would be happening at the same time - which in this case is kind of ambiguous,
i went to the market - i was leaving the house but then
you came - which would imply that we met so I didn't actually reached the market because i met you. As @Maulik V♦ commented out, you could say
I was at the market when you came... which would be perfectly acceptable - both actions could be happening at the same time -
i was at the market and
b1 is just the same case as
b, doesn't matter if the phrases have been switched around.