When Arabs talk about how great a person is, relative to others, they talk about the person's family (birth or descent, or nasab) and the person's or his family's achievements or attributes (hasab). So, someone who belongs to a great family with bright doctors and judges, for example, is said to be of noble descent. I'm struggling though to find an English word for hasab, i.e. for "the achievements or attributes of the individual and/or his family or ancestors".
The word can be used to shorten such a long question as: What qualities or great achievements do you or a family member have or had? One could answer: "I have a PhD, my father is a successful politician, and my great-great-grandmother was the first person to establish an orphanage in my town".
Hasab is derived from another word meaning calculation or counting. The idea was that Arabs, a long time ago, would compete against each other in terms of whose hasab was greater than others, and the competition involved each one of the competing group counting or listing all the things they prided themselves on.
Today, the pair hasab and nasab is most likely to be seen or uttered when a man asks for a woman's hand in marriage. The family of the woman would investigate or even ask the man directly about his hasab and nasab.
Some people would translate hasab as status. I think this translation may capture the essence of the Arabic word, but it misses the whole story.