What is the name of the words group in English which translates into Russian in many words combination? For instance, accomplish (one word) in Russian means "dostigat' sovershenstva" (two words).
Given the definition of Accomplish as:
verb (used with object)
1. to bring to its goal or conclusion; carry out; perform; finish: to accomplish one's mission.
2. to complete (a distance or period of time): to have accomplished the age of 70; We accomplished the journey in little more than an hour.
3. Archaic. to provide polish to; perfect.
Instead of translating "dostigat' sovershenstva" literally ("achieve perfection/excellence"), the English translation is paraphrased with an equivalent word (which happens to be a singular word in this case) to provide the same (or closer) meaning to the native language. In this case, instead of translating to, "achieve perfection/excellence," the word "accomplish" is substituted in. Translations are also based on regional or localized language developments.
For example, the insect coccinella magnifica is known as a "ladybug" in English while, in Polish, it is known as, "boża krówka". Translated into English literally, the Polish words for "ladybug" is "holy cow". Translators, in this case, have therefore opted to exchange the literal translation of "holy cow" for the English equivalent word "ladybug" instead of confusing the tiny beetle for a sacred bovine.
The connotation/association of the word(s) that identify the insect are taken into consideration by the translator to give local/familiar context and understanding to the reader/listener.
So, while there is no specific term to refer to the action of translating one (or many words) into many (or fewer) in another language, the act of translating or localizing a language is more accurate to use when referring to the situation you asked about.