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Tell me please if I used if not grammatically correct in the following sentence.

Shouldn't you have been at work today? if not, then it is alright.

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There are of course other ways to use the words "if not", but your example it is being used to introduce a condition to the sentence:

Shouldn't you have been at work today, if not, then it is alright.

The sentence seems fine. The only change I would make to be fussy would be to maybe use "that" instead of "it", depending on what it was you are saying is "alright" - the present situation, or the fact that you were not at work today.

Remember though that "if not" can be used in other ways. It can be used in place of "perhaps also", as in this example:

He has worked here for 5 years if not 6.

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    It seems odd not to treat these as separate sentences that should be punctuated accordingly, either with a question mark or at least a semicolon. "Shouldn't you have been at work today? If not, that's all right." – Andrew Nov 6 '18 at 14:18

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