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What is the word for "a disk-shaped rubber plate that fits between metal parts to prevent leakage of fluids"?

Such a plate has a hole in the middle to allow for the passage of a fluid. The plate's function is to prevent sideways leakage that would otherwise happen when two pieces of metal pipes come together. For example, the plate found in a flush tank that prevents water from leaking down through the hole at the bottom of the tank while the tank button is unpressed.

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I think the word you are looking for is gasket.

From NOAD:

gasket (n.) a shaped piece or ring of rubber or other material sealing the junction between two surfaces in an engine or other device.

A gasket can be as simple as a rubber ring, or it can be a very specialized shape that is designed for one particular engine or pump.

This is a gasket kit for a motorcycle engine:

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"Washer"

washer noun wash·​er | \ˈwȯ-shər, ˈwä-\ Definition of washer 1 : a flat thin ring or a perforated plate used in joints or assemblies to ensure tightness, prevent leakage, or relieve friction 2 : one that washes especially : WASHING MACHINE

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary

I do quite a lot of work putting together furniture. The directions frequently call for the use of a "washer" so I was familiar with this word immediately. However, I looked it up and inserted a definition and source in the hopes that this is the correct way of responding to a question.

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