The definite articles in brackets are added by me, not from the original article. I wonder why there are no definite articles, like the other two in bold in the same sentence, at here? The four phrases are all looked the same to me.


Vitamin D contributes to the regulation of the immune system through multiple mechanisms, including (the) regulation of the activation and differentiation of CD4 lymphocytes, the suppression of differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells, the reduction of cytokine production, and (the) stimulation of natural killer T cells (38).

source:Immunopathogenesis in Myasthenia Gravis and Neuromyelitis Optica.

1 Answer 1


Definite articles are not right or wrong there. They are absent because these things are being presented generically. They are sub-headings, as it were, beneath the topic "immune system regulatory mechanisms". Furthermore, they are defined by the prepositional phrases that follow them.

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