If it is Saturday/Sunday, would the up coming Friday be called ‘next Friday’ or ‘this Friday’? Also would the Friday that had just passed be called ‘this Friday’ when talking past tense?
A lot of people, including me, prefer to designate "this Friday" for "the Friday during this week". Other people might mean, the next Friday that will arrive, which is actually during this week.
Therefore this can be confusing, because many people don't know, or make mistakes.
To add to the confusion, what it means to be "this week" is a bit blurry, because some people consider the start of the week to be Sunday, and some people consider it to be Monday. So on a Sunday, "this Friday' could be in 5 days, but people who consider the week to end on Sunday and the week to begin on Monday, will say that "next" Friday is 5 days.
I would recommend that you say Friday November 23 or Friday the 23rd of November instead of "this Friday" or "Next Friday".
If it is a Saturday or Sunday, Friday is five or six days away. It is "this Friday" or "this coming Friday" or "next Friday".
If you are at a train station, the next train is the one that comes down the platform after the one that has left. The same holds true for next Friday. It is not the one that has passed: last Friday or this past Friday. It is the upcoming one.
"Proof" of this comes from the fact we also say: Friday after next. So, if it is Saturday or Sunday, Friday after next is not the upcoming one, it is the one after that.