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  1. I'll take whatever of that pie is left.
  2. I'll take whatever is left of that pie.

Do both of the above sentences mean the same thing?

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Whilst both sentences could be readily understood in context, the second sentence is more natural. The first sentence would seem to imply that 'left' is a property of the pie itself, and that you are requesting the section of pie which has this 'left property'.

The word left has many meanings in English -

As an adjective:

Your left arm

As an adverb:

Walk left until you reach the door.

As a noun:

Drive straight, then take the next left.

But in the context of your examples, you are using left as the past participle of the verb leave, in the sense of referring to what remains.

Hence, you could alternatively write the phrase as:

I'll take whatever remains of that pie.

Or, since the term leftover is specifically used to refer to an unconsumed food item -

I'll take whatever is left over of that pie.

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