I'm a bit confused with the present perfect form. I know that it is formed using has/have + past participle. But in the following sentence, there's a been included too.

"Psychologists and the public alike have been concerned that violent video game exposure has the potential to increase aggression on a societal level."

I'm not really sure that this sentence is in present perfect. But if it is, can someone explain why?

Thanks a lot!

  • 1
    @Andrew - 'concerning' would be progressive. "Have been concerned" is present perfect passive.
    – amI
    Nov 27, 2018 at 7:35
  • @aml Yes, you're right, although I don't think it's passive. "Have been" is the present perfect of "are", and "concerned" is a participle that works as an adjective.
    – Andrew
    Nov 27, 2018 at 11:32

1 Answer 1


This is indeed the present perfect tense. It's not so much that a been has been included (sorry), but that the word been itself is the past participle of the verb 'to be.'

So in this case concerned is simply a predicative adjective that isn't part of the verb.


As @aml has pointed out, this is actually the present perfect passive form of 'to concern.' The sentence in the active voice would be

That violent video game exposure has the potential to increase aggression on a societal level has concerned psychologists and the public alike.

  • 1
    Don't you think that passive clauses can be perfect?
    – amI
    Nov 27, 2018 at 7:43
  • It's splitting hairs, but I don't think this is the passive voice. "I am concerned" is no different from "I am hungry" or "I am late". "Concerned" is either a participle or a predicate adjective, depending how you look at it, that modifies the subject
    – Andrew
    Nov 27, 2018 at 19:56
  • @Andrew It may be true that this is a bit pedantic and perhaps overkill for answering the original question, but he is right. You can tell it's the passive voice because you're able to put it back into the active voice as I did in my answer. Also, the function of "concerned" is indeed the same as "hungry" and "late." However, the form is different in that "to concern" is a verb that's been conjugated in the past participle, and neither "hungry" nor "late" are verbs in any way, they're merely adjectives.
    – OKUMA
    Nov 28, 2018 at 1:17

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