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Ok, see the definition of investment

[uncountable] the act of investing money in something

to encourage foreign investment

investment income

investment in something This country needs investment in education.

See the example "This country needs investment in education.",

my question is:

can we change "We have an investment in education" to "We have an investment that is in education"?

or "This is the book for you" to "This is the book that is for you"

or "I have an investment of 5000 USD" to "I have an investment that is of 5000 USD"

or "We met on a flight from London to Paris." to "We met on the flight that is from London to Paris"

and many more examples

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Yes, we can replace the prepositional phrase that modifies the noun it follows with a restrictive subordinate clause that modifies that noun; in some cases the prepositional phrase is a little "iffy", not immediately clear, and would be clearer if expressed as a clause:

We met on a flight from London to Paris.

We met on a flight that goes from London to Paris.

Such prepositional phrases can attach to a constituent other than the immediately preceding noun:

We walked into the room with our eyes closed.

In some cases that flexibility can result in a momentary confusion or ambiguity that would not have occurred had the idea been expressed with a clause.

She looked at the child with wide eyes.

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