I think most English speakers would say
- My salary has not increased.
- Prices have increased.
- Profit for this month has increased.
To emphasize an unnamed doer, you could say
- My salary was not increased.
- My salary has not been increased.
- Prices were increased.
- Prices have not been increased.
Profit is not generally increased by a doer, so I left that one out.
The comparison with “window is broken” doesn’t work well. “Broken” is an inherent state; you can look at a window and tell if it is broken. You can’t look at a salary and tell if it “is increased.” Something is increased if it is changed from a previous value. Also, because something is “increased” only if a change has taken place before now, the past tense is used (“has increased” or “was increased”).
[Added: To answer the OP’s specific question, I don’t think “increased” is as “adjective-y” in these examples as “broken.” You could replace “My window is broken.” with “My window is a broken window,” if slightly awkwardly, but it would be more awkward to say “My salary is an increased salary.” However, increased can be an adjective: “Increased prices caused a drop in sales.” “The increased speed limit may be the cause of the recent spate of accidents.”]