Q : Are these books borrowed by you yesterday?
A1 : Yes, these books are.
A2 : Yes, these are.
What is difference between A1 and A2?
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Both answers are awkward. The best and simplest way to answer the question is:
If you need a short sentence answer, you should use one of the subject pronouns (it, he, they), not a demonstrative pronoun (this, that, these, those)
Yes, they are.
You would use "these" to point to a particular group of books.
Yes. These books I borrowed yesterday, but the ones in my bag I took out last week.
The difference between A1 and A2 is that in A1 the word "These" is a determiner, and in A2 it is a pronoun.