How would it be correct to use the verb 'quantify' followed by the result of something being quantified?
My passion for learning can be quantified to/in five years of education
No, you should not use it this way. It's close to the right usage, but quantify is not used in this context. Though the word is used in science, I can't imagine seeing it used to describe education in a resume or letter setting.
The population can be quantified by dividing into various shapes, giving each subpopulation a score using the three main criteria, and counting the number of members in each subpopulation.
Here we have used "quantify" as a method of describing exactly how much of something there is. When used with your education, it would mean that counting five years of education is the exact way to describe your passion for learning. That doesn't work: you can't quantify passion as a number of years of something. That's not what it is. As written is almost sounds like you intend to belittle your education.
What is it you really want to say? Do you want to say that your 5 years of education is evidence of your passion for learning?
My passion for learning is manifested by my five years of education.
But this is strange too. The fact that you did five years of education isn't really evidence of passion. Maybe you mean that you developed your passion for learning over your five years?
My passion for learning has grown and developed over the last five years of education.
Maybe you can give us a little better idea of what you are trying to convey and I can try for some alternative ways of saying it.