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This mineral has been discovered recently.

This mineral was discovered recently.

Which one is correct?

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Both are grammatically correct. You can use either one, depending on the context you are in.

This mineral has been discovered recently.

"has been" is in the present perfect tense. The present perfect can be used to "show the present result of a past action".

While the "time of the action is before now", "we are often more interested in the result than in the action itself". More uses here.

This mineral was discovered recently.

"was" is in the past tense. It refers to the past, when the mineral was discovered.

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