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Harry was pointing the wand directly at Dudley's heart. Harry could feel fourteen years’ hatred of Dudley pounding in his veins—what wouldn't he give to strike now, to jinx Dudley so thoroughly he'd have to crawl home like an insect, struck dumb, sprouting feelers

‘Don't ever talk about that again,’ Harry snarled. ‘D'you understand me?’

Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix

I think "what wouldn't he give to strike now" implies Harry really wanted to strike, right? However, I don't understand the grammar of "struck dumb, spouting feelers", and I'm not sure how to link it to the sentence. Is it modifying "an insect" here?

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Those are participle clauses, the first the past participle, the second the present participle, and although they are syntactically not explicitly connected to the subject he they can be understood as modifiers of the subject or as predicated of the subject:

... he'd have to crawl home ... struck dumb, sprouting feelers..

The lost puppy found its way home, exhausted by the ordeal, limping.

The maniac began to destroy the room, hopped up on amphetamines, humming Wagner.

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Is it modifying "an insect" here?

No. An insect can't be struck dumb because insects can't speak in the first place. Also insects already have feelers so they don't need to sprout them.

Paraphrase:

He'd have to crawl home, struck dumb, sprouting feelers. This is how an insect would have to crawl home (i.e. dumb and with feelers).

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