Please explain 'if' and how paraphrase it.

Now, researchers aim to learn if and how animals can really enjoy their lives.


That form is collapsing two statements into one:

They aim to learn if animals have fun.

They aim to learn how animals have fun.

It is usually expressed as follows, so as not to make the how-clause a foregone conclusion:

They aim to learn if, and if so, how animals have fun.

Your Answer

By clicking "Post Your Answer", you acknowledge that you have read our updated terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy, and that your continued use of the website is subject to these policies.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.