Please explain 'if' and how paraphrase it.

Now, researchers aim to learn if and how animals can really enjoy their lives.

1 Answer 1


That form is collapsing two statements into one:

They aim to learn if animals have fun.

They aim to learn how animals have fun.

It is usually expressed as follows, so as not to make the how-clause a foregone conclusion:

They aim to learn if, and if so, how animals have fun.


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