What does the suffix "-ine" mean? How it modifies the meaning of the root word?
The suffix -ine for adjectives has a Greek or Latin origin. Reference Dictionary mentions it.
-ine -a suffix means “of or pertaining to,” “of the nature of,” “made of,” “like”: asinine; crystalline; equine; marine.
Furthermore, the suffix -ine for nouns has Greek, Latin or French origin. Explained on the same page of RD.
-ine - a suffix, of no assignable meaning, appearing in nouns of Greek, Latin, or French origin: doctrine; famine; routine.