I can't really understand when to use and and when to use , and. Any help would be appreciated.

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closed as too broad by Tashus, Andrew, FumbleFingers, Jason Bassford, ColleenV Jan 11 at 20:49

Please edit the question to limit it to a specific problem with enough detail to identify an adequate answer. Avoid asking multiple distinct questions at once. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

  • Welcome to ELL. There are many different contexts when one might use "and" or ", and". Unfortunately, this question may be too broad for this site unless you narrow it down to some specific context or use case. – Tashus Jan 11 at 17:20
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  • @Tashus, please accept my apologies and I will keep this in mind for the future questions. – Bialy Jan 11 at 17:56
  • @Manokhin, this article was what I was looking for. Kindly, post it as an answer and I will mark it as correct. – Bialy Jan 11 at 17:57
  • @Bialy answers that are merely links to other websites are discouraged. You may want to join us in English Language Learners Chat for questions that don’t fit the Q&A format well. – ColleenV Jan 11 at 20:51

The problem with this question is that the "rules" of punctuation are set by style manuals, and style manuals differ. So any rule will be said to be wrong by some. Here are three rules that I use.

(1) Separate the independent clauses in a compound sentence (meaning a sentence with two or more indepenent clause with a semi-colon or a comma followed by "and.


Romanoff rule ended in 1917; Hapsburg and Hohenzoller rule ended in 1918; Ottoman rule ended in 1922, and thus, one by one, the hereditary military dynasties of Early modern Europe disappeared in a brief five years.

(2) Separate two linked items within a clause by "and" without a comma.


After 1867, the Hapsburg lands were separated into German and Magyar parts united in personal union.

(3) Separate three or more linked items by commas until the last, which is indicated by a comma followed by "and."

Revolution occurred in Russia, Austria, Hungary, Germany, and Turkey.

EDIT: My third rule is disputed by many. I find that it avoids ambiguities in certain situations.

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