"Oxygen deprivation in the retinal cells impairs their ability to process light, causing greyed out vison"
I have a question of the sentence above. I think "causing"is a verb and "greyed out"is also verb. How is this sentence correct grammatically?
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"Grey" is a simple straightforward adjective. "To grey" and "to grey out" are verbs formed from that word. "Greyed" or "greyed out" are the participle forms of those 2 verbs. But, as Weather Vane says, in your sentence the participle "greyed out" performs the function of an adjective (not a verb).
So the sentence is correct.