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I found this in Oxford's "New English File Upper-Intermediate".

It's stated that the correct answer is "arrived", but I can't get my head around why it's so.

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The correct answer is "arrived"--simple past tense--because the arrival being referenced began and ended in the past. The word "could" in "Could you already speak" also indicates this happened at some time in the past. The verb tense "have arrived" is the present perfect tense which is used to describe an action that began in the past and ends in the present (e.g., "You have arrived at your destination.")

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