The question itself is wider. If I am not mistaken, putting “Friday” in the song title by the Cure means “On Friday”. Can we use it everyday and not only with days of the week but other time markers, like “February, she is gone to Australia”?
That song's lyrics go:
(It's) Friday, (and) I'm in love.
In spoken English, prepositions or function words can get mumbled/dropped when their exact details don't matter.
(In/By/For) February, I'll be in Australia
All 3 options would mostly imply the same thing, so when speaking english casually, they can generally be omitted.